Kamis, 04 Januari 2018

Brazilian strategy to be an oranges self sufficiency country

      Good afternoon everyone. In this opportunity I would like to discuss about food self-supply or it usually called as food self-sufficiency at Brazil especially for oranges and orange juice commodity. Human beings have a number of needs that have to be satisfied in order to live in full. In this sense what is more are water, air, cloths, shelter, and food. Food plays an important role as one of the human satisfier of a basic need, nourishment. 
      Before I continue to discuss about oranges and orange juice at Brazil, I would like to introduce a term with what is called as food self-sufficiency. Based on FAO, 1999, the concept of food self-sufficiency is generally taken to mean the extent to which a country can satisfy its food needs from its own domestic production. Then in 2016, Clapp said that food self-sufficiency is focused on the supply or availability component of food security and is concerned with ensuring that the country has the capacity to produce food in a sufficient quantities to meet its domestic needs. 
      Brazil is one of country that categorized as food self-sufficient country beside Argentina, Canada, Australia, and Germany. The country which still have food deficit problem are Liberia, Bolivia, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Haiti. The key point is that a country called as food self-sufficient country when they produce an amount of food that is equal to or greater than the amount of food that they consume. 
      Food availability in Brazil is more than sufficient for its entire population. Brazil not only plays an important role in food production but also it is famous in food trade (Source: IISD, 2010., Neves and Trombin, 2011). Regarding with international trade, Brazil is the main agricultural exporter products, like oranges and orange juice, coffee, beef, chicken, sugar and ethanol at the first position in the world, soy (beans), soy (middling), soy (oil), and corn at the second position, pork and cotton at the fourth position and milk at the seventh position. Because Brazil produces and exports the biggest number of orange juice, so I choose this commodity to be discussed.
      Interestingly enough, world production of oranges destined for juice production is concentrated in two states: Sao Paulo (Brazil) and Florida (United States). These two states combined produce 90% of the world’s supply of orange juice. But, the productivity gain in orange juice production at Sao Paulo Brazil is more stable from year to year compare with Florida (United States). Orange juice production has decreased slightly at Florida (United States) in 2004/2005 due to bad weather (hurricanes) and the spread of diseases. The hurricanes that hit Florida in 2004 and 2005 caused damage to orange groves and downed the fruits. There is also diseases called citrus greening that negatively affected productivity (Source: Chaddad, 2016).
      Talk about Brazilian citrus belt, it is an area covering over 300 counties in Southeastern Brazil. The citrus belts is divided into five macro regions: Northwest around 30,35 million trees, north 25,81 million trees, central 76,28 million tress, south 30,66 million trees, and Castelo 41,57 million trees. In total there is around 1.3 million hectares orange farming, is the third most important agricultural activity in the state, behind sugarcane and livestock. The reasons that make Brazil is the most important citrus-producing region are suitable soil, available water, adequate rainfall, topography, available and qualified labor force, and availability of inputs like fertilizer.
      To know does Brazil can export the oranges and orange juice to other countries or not, first we should know how much its current consumption and production of oranges and orange juice in Brazil. Current consumption of fresh oranges in fruit is around kg of fruit, and current consumption of fresh oranges in juice equivalent is around 2 million liters of juice (Source: Prepared by Markestrat, based on data from the IBGE and CitrusBr in Neves and Trombin, 2011).
      Brazil is the world’s largest producer of oranges and orange juice and export almost 80% of the frozen concentrated orange juice (FCOJ) consumed in the world. Brazil produce around 18 million tons of oranges and around 2 million tons of orange juice in 2010/2011 (Source: Elaborated based on data from FAO (2015) and USDA (2015). This production value is bigger than the number of consumption, so they can export to other countries. Europe stands out as the foremost destination for exports of Brazilian orange juice around 43% -72% from 1970 until 2010. After that North America, Asia, then other continents (Source: prepared by Marketstrat based on Cacex, Banco do Brasil, Siscomex and SECEX/MIDC). However in the last decade, Brazil has managed to diversify the markets in which it trades. This is the strategy for finding new channels for offloading national production.
      But, then let see more details to the number of fresh oranges export from 2000 to 2010. There is a problem. There is a trend where the number of oranges export are decrease and not stable year by year. From 3.421.150 to 989.565, from 2.21.043 to 751.326, from 1.219.331 to 937.678 and so on. (Source: prepared by Marketstrat based on Cacex, Banco do Brasil, Siscomex and SECEX/MIDC in Neves and Trombin, 2011). Although the decline is not slightly but if there are no serious effort to make better, it will decline continually by time.
      Then, Brazil find the solutions to increase orange productivity so they can export more. Some of them are make better in planting technology, advance nurseries, routine disease management, research development, good laws, skillful labor, advance industry, and diversify the market. Brazil do better seedling treatment in nurseries like specializing in seedlings that important part of the business, vegetative propagation, and give special substrates on seedlings.They prepare better seedlings from screened nurseries. Seeds are handled to farms, where they will be planted to start producing 3 years later. Greenhouse are used so the seedlings received the best care while they’re still young. Worker caring for the plant before it reaches the point of being taken to an orchard, when its productive life will begin. And the result is adult orchards from huge oranges mazes, where millions of boxes will be harvested. They also do diseases management. Technician look for imperfection and diseases all the time. So when there is an indicator of disease they can prevent it earlier, so disease outbreak will not happen. Then they also do irrigation. Nearly 130.000 hectares are already irrigated. 
     Because of my background is silvicultural, I will focused just at one of their strategies, i.e. they planting more trees per area or in another word increase the density. From 250 trees per hectare in 1980 to 357 trees per hectare in 1990, and 476 trees per hectare in 2000, then 850 trees per hectare. Hope that more trees will give more fruits.  
     Higher density of orange trees, is it the best decisions? Be careful, every species has its own characteristic to grow well. Let us learn from another countries. There are a lot of research about “spacing” when we cultivate orange trees, from Florida, Brazil at the last years before, California, Japan, Spain, Italy, Mexico and others. And these are the common spacing used: 3.05 m x 4.57 m; 3.35 m x 6.71 m; 3.66 m x 4.57 m; 3.81 m x 7.62 m; 4.57 m x 7.62 m; 4.57 m x 6.10 m; 5.49 m x 5.49 m; 5.49 m x 7.32 m; 6.10 m x 6.71 m. Source: from many research study of orange at Florida, Brazil, California, Japan, Spain, Italy, Mexico (Source: Tucker & Wheaton, 1987; Wheaton et al., 1995; Agrilink, 2007; Agriculture Republic of South Africa, 2009). Then let’s compare them to what Brazil do now. If there are 850 trees/hectare, it means the space is around 11-12 m2. Or around 3.31 m x 3.31 m to 3.46 m x 3.46 m in space. It is too close in space or too much trees per hectare. When we plant trees in very high densities, beside the establishment cost were higher, management become more difficult, it also will impact to the trees become crowded too quickly, and increase the competition of nutrition, water, space between individuals. When the competition is high, every single tree only can absorb small amount of resources. The negative impact is the growth will decrease (dwarf). The crowded tree make the trees canopy is overlapping, especially at the middle part of the canopy, then there will be no fruit, and or fruiting moved higher to the canopy. The closer spacing require the possible removal of every second tree when they grow together and production starts to decline (thinning). Besides that, the decisions on planting densities should be made in relation to vigor of tree growth, soil fertility, and water availability.

Selasa, 19 April 2016


Native species (species asli) merupakan spesies yang terjadi secara alami di suatu daerah tertentu, negara, ekosistem, maupun habitat, yang berkembang dan bertahan di daerah tersebut tanpa ada bantuan/campur tangan manusia baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung (Federal Native Plant Conservation Committee, 1994; Morse et.al., 2016).

Lebih lanjut, Morse et al. (2016) menyatakan bahwa terdapat beberapa konsep dasar untuk memahami definisi species asli (native species) yaitu sebagai berikut:
  1. Terjadi secara alami. Tanaman yang ditemukan tumbuh di daerah tertentu, baik pada masa lampau maupun masa sekarang, sedangkan di daerah tersebut tidak ditemukan bukti ada manusia yang sengaja membawanya maka tanaman tersebut digolongkan dalam species asli (native species).
  2. Penciri khas daerah tertentu. Suatu species diklasifikasikan sebagai native species di daerah, negara, ekosistem, ataupun habitat tertentu saja. Suatu tanaman yang merupakan native species di suatu negara (misal Indonesia) mungkin saja tidak menjadi native species di negara-negara lain. Di Indonesia sendiri pun, native species merupakan penciri khas daerah tertentu, misal P. Kalimantan, dan tidak menjadi native species di daerah, ekosistem, maupun habitat lain di Indonesia.
  3. Pengaruh kegiatan manusia secara langsung dan tidak langsung. Kegiatan manusia yang dimaksud dalam tulisan ini yaitu kegiatan manusia yang berusaha memindahkan tanaman (dan atau hewan) ke tempat yang baru secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Mengintroduksi tanaman ke tempat baru secara sengaja bisa dilakukan melalui kegiatan dalam bidang perkebunan, kehutanan, dan pertanian. Sedangkan kegiatan yang tidak sengaja membawa tanaman ke tempat yang baru misalnnya adalah keterikutan gulma pada tanaman pokok yang baru dibawa. Ketika diintroduksikan ke tempat yang baru, tanaman selanjutnya akan menyebar sehingga mengakibatkan populasi tanaman baru terbentuk dan berkembang di daerah tersebut. Meskipun tanaman tersebut berada di daerah itu dalam kurun waktu yang lama dan memiliki kemampuan berkembang baik, namun tidak serta merta menjadi native species untuk daerah tersebut.
Dalam kerangka definisi ini saya memahami bahwa native species dan jenis asli merupakan satu pengertian yang sama.

Endemic species merupakan species yang hanya terdapat di satu lokasi atau daerah saja dan tidak ditemukan di lokasi atau daerah lain. Spesies endemik biasanya bersifat unik pada suatu wilayah geografi tertentu.
Exotic species (sinonim: alien species, non native, non indigenous, introduced species) merupakan species dan termasuk benih, spora, dan material biologi lain yang mampu menjadi bahan berkembang biak/memperbanyak diri species tersebut, yang bukan asli di suatu ekosistem yang bersangkutan. Pengertian ini mencakup introduksi dari benua lain, daerah lain, dan bukan asli daerah geografis lokal setempat. Dalam kerangka definisi ini saya memahami bahwa exotic species dan jenis pendatang merupakan satu pengertian yang sama.
      Invasive species merupakan exotic species yang diintroduksikan ke suatu daerah namun pada akhirnya menyebabkan kerugian ekonomi dan atau berbahaya bagi lingkungan maupun kesehatan manusia. Ciri khas invasive species adalah memiliki pertumbuhan yang sangat cepat, menginvasi suatu habitat, dan mengambil/menggantikan tempat species lain. Karakteristik lainnya adalah menghasilkan benih yang melimpah, rerata perkecambahan biji tinggi, perkembangbiakan aseksual menggunakan bagian akar dan atau batang (NRCS National Wetland Team, 2007).

Definisi yang sama disampaikan oleh Richardson & Pyšek  (2004)  yang menyatakan bahwa yang termasuk dalam invasive species yaitu apabila species yang bersangkutan termasuk dalam kategori: 1) merupakan exotic species; 2) memiliki kemampuan atau berpotensi untuk menguasai suatu ekosistem dengan kemampuan reproduksinya yang tinggi, mampu menyebar dengan cepat pada lokasi/tempat tumbuh yang baru dan menguasai suatu daerah yang luas; 3) memiliki kemampuan/berpotensi meyebabkan dampak negative lingkungan dan atau kesehatan manusia.

Jati (Tectona grandis) merupakan jenis tanaman kayu yang  dianggap paling penting di India yang berguna untuk memenuhi kebutuhan kayu furniture. Jati merupakan native species di Asia Tenggara, utamanya di India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, dan Burma (Meena et al., 2013).  Orwa et al., 2009 dalam Agroforestry Database 4.0 juga menyatakan hal yang sama yaitu bahwa jati merupakan native species untuk negara India, Indonesia, Laos, Myanmar, dan Thailand. Sedangkan di Antigua dan Barbuda, Bangladesh, Barbados, Brazil, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Cote d’Ivore, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Kenya, Malaysia, Mauritius, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panaman, Philippines, Puerto Rico, South Africa, Sri Lanka, St. Lucia, St Vincent and the Grenadines, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, Uganda, United States of America, Vietnam, Virgin Island (US) merupakan exotic species.

Namun demikian literatur lain menyatakan hal yang berbeda yaitu bahwa jati merupakan exotic species untuk Indonesia. Masih dalam Meena et al., 2013, ia menyatakan bahwa jati merupakan jenis yang diintroduksikan bagi negara-negara Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Indonesia, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Ivory coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, West Indies, Honduras dan Panama. Pernyataan ini didukung oleh  Kaosa-ard (1981)  yang menulis bahwa jati merupakan native species di daerah India, Myanmar, dan Thailand, dan merupakan jenis yang diintroduksikan ke Indonesia sudah sejak bertahun-tahun lamanya.

Dari beberapa literatur ini saya berfikir bahwa jati di Indonesia merupakan exotic species. Pemikiran ini atas dasar definisi sebelumnya yang menyatakan bahwa meskipun tanaman tersebut (jati) berada Indonesia sudah dalam kurun waktu yang lama dan memiliki kemampuan berkembang baik, namun tidak serta merta menjadi native species untuk Indonesia. Sebagai tambahan bahwa jati diintroduksi sejak 800 tahun yang lalu dan untuk ±400 tahun jati ditanam pada sistem agroforestry di Sulawesi Tenggara (ACIAR, 2007). http://aciar.gov.au/publication/fr2007-03

Adanya anggapan bahwa jati merupakan native species di Indonesia tidak sepenuhnya bisa disalahkan karena mungkin anggapan itu muncul karena melihat pada kurun waktu jati yang telah sekian lama ada di Indonesia.